Which Batteries In Cars Are Better – Solid-State Battery Or Lithium-Ion Battery? - EV Motors

Which Batteries In Cars Are Better – Solid-State Battery Or Lithium-Ion Battery?

Findings Of Study Published In Joules

It is often considered that Solid-state batteries are better than Lithium-ion ones. A recent study published in Joules had some interesting findings. According to it, the addition of liquid electrolytes to solid-state batteries makes them safer than their Li-ion counterparts.

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Another critical finding was about heat release. If there were a short circuit, the solid-state battery would release a high amount of heat. Such a high amount could be dangerous for a solid-state battery as it is considered “theoretically safe.” [1]

Difference Between Solid-State Batteries And Lithium-Ion Batteries

The two batteries vary in quite a lot of aspects. There is a liquid electrolyte solution in a Li-ion battery. In a solid-state battery, the electrolyte is solid. Li-ion battery has an anode and cathode that are kept away from each other by a separator. The separator has the liquid electrolyte solution. Likewise, the solid electrolyte in the solid-state battery acts as the separator.

A solid-state battery is more stable and has a higher energy density than a Li-ion battery. The solid-state battery maintains its form even with a damaged electrolyte. Li-ion batteries are expected in smartphones, power tools, and EVS. Solid-state batteries were built to increase the capacity of EV batteries. So their primary use is in automobiles.

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Experimental Setup In The Study

The researchers at Joules tested three failure scenarios. In the first scenario, a thermal runaway of external heat was tested. In the second scenario, researchers tested an internal short circuit. A mechanical failure of solid electrolytes was tested for the third.

The result showed that adding a small amount of liquid electrolyte can lead to the commercialization of solid-state batteries. It was also found that temperature rises in a solid state. In the case of equal areal capacity is due to less thermal mass and heat capacity. [2]

Which Automakers Are Using Solid-State Batteries?

Automakers have shown interest in solid-state batteries for use in the future. Currently, only a few Mercedes Benz buses have solid-state batteries. So far, Mercedes, Stellantis, and Hyundai have invested in a startup. It is a solid-state battery company, called Factorial Energy. Ford and BMW have also invested in such a startup, called Solid Power.

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Volkswagen has invested in the company Quantum Scape. According to it, this collaboration will lead to the production of EVs by solid-state batteries. Toyota is planning its solid-state battery debut in a hybrid by 2025. In 2020, Samsung stated that it was developing solid-state batteries. However, any query regarding mass production remains unanswered.

Conclusion

Adding a small amount of liquid electrolyte could be of great help. It increases battery performance with negligible safety effects. The study published in Joule cleared the air around liquid electrolytes in solid-state batteries.

The failure scenarios were fateful in determining the experiment’s results. The use of solid-state batteries is encouraged after studying its benefits over the li-ion battery. Many big names of the automobile industry are working on the idea of mass production.

 

References
  1. Science Daily. Safer, more powerful batteries for electric cars, power grid https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/03/220307113014.htm
  2. Alex M. Bates, Yuliya Preger, Loraine Torres-Castro, Katherine L. Harrison, Stephen J. Harris, John Hewson. Are solid-state batteries safer than Lithium-ion batteries? https://www.cell.com/joule/fulltext/S2542-4351(22)00088-5?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS2542435122000885%3Fshowall%3Dtrue#relatedArticles

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